Space Management

Building Definitions and Data Elements
The information presented here provides the technical definitions, measurement procedures, and coding structures for building data elements. The conceptual framework in Figure 1 illustrates the interrelationships between these components of building area.

Definitions of Building Areas1
The definitions and procedures provided here is intended to clarify and provide the guidelines by which data is collected and compiled on UConn Health Center buildings. These guidelines are based on the definitions and standards established during the 1960s for the Federal Construction Council and published by the National Academy of Sciences. The Federal Construction Council standards were intended for use by federal agencies, but they have been widely adopted and used by colleges and universities.

The definitions and guidelines attempt to clarify the standards by which the space has been interpreted and how the measurement standards have been applied. The guidelines are used to establish a common standard for the data that is included in a building inventory in order to provide a database that is usable for both intra-institutional and inter-institutional purposes.

1. Gross Area

A. Definition: The sum of all areas on all floors of a building included within the outside faces of its exterior walls, including floor penetration areas, however insignificant, for circulation and shaft areas that connect one floor to another.

B. Basis for Measurement: Gross area is computed by physically measuring or scaling measurements from the outside faces of exterior walls, disregarding cornices, pilasters, buttresses, etc., which extend beyond the wall faces. Excluded are areas having less than a six-foot, six-inch clear ceiling height certain criteria of a separate structure are met.

Measured in terms of gross square feet (GSF),
Gross Area = Net Usable Area + Structural Space.

C. Description: In addition to all the internal floored spaces obviously covered above, gross area should include the following: excavated basement areas; mezzanines, penthouses, and attics; garages; enclosed porches, inner or outer balconies whether walled or not, if they are utilized for operational functions; and corridors whether walled or not, provided they are within the outside face lines of the building, to the extent of the roof drip line. The footprints of stairways, elevator shafts, and ducts (examples of building infrastructure) are to be counted as gross area on each floor through which they pass.

D. Limitations: Exclude open areas such as parking lots, playing fields, courts, and light wells, or portions of upper floors eliminated by rooms or lobbies that rise above single-floor ceiling height.

E. Exception: Include top, unroofed floor of parking structures where parking is available.

2. Assignable Area (Net Assignable Square Feet - NASF)

A. Definition: The sum of all areas on all floors of a building assigned to, or available for assignment to, an occupant or specific use.

B. Basis for Measurement: Assignable area is computed by physically measuring or scaling measurements from the inside faces of surfaces that form the boundaries of the designated areas. Exclude areas having less than a six-foot, six-inch clear ceiling height unless the criteria of a separate structure are met.

Measured in terms of assignable square feet (ASF),
Assignable Area = Sum of Area Designated by the Ten Assignable Major Room Use Categories.

C. Description: Included should be space subdivisions of the ten major room use categories for assignable space - classrooms, labs, offices, study facilities, special use, general use, support, health care, residential and unclassified - that are used to accomplish the institution's mission.

D. Limitations: Deductions should not be made for necessary building columns and projections. Areas defined, as building service, circulation; mechanical, and structural should not be included.

3. Non-assignable Area

A. Definition: The sum of all areas on all floors of a building not available for assignment to an occupant or for specific use, but necessary for the general operation of a building

B. Basis for Measurement: Non-assignable Area is computed by physically measuring or scaling measurements from the inside faces of surfaces that form the boundaries of the designate areas. Exclude areas having less than six-foot, six-inch clear ceiling height unless the criteria of a separate structure are met.

Measured in terms of area,
Non-assignable Area = Sum of Area Designated by the Three Non-assignable Room Use Categories.

C. Description: Included should be space subdivisions of the three non-assignable room use categories – building services, circulation and mechanical – that are used to support the building’s general operation.

D. Limitations: Deductions should not be made for necessary building columns and projections. Areas defined as assignable should not be included.

4. Building Service Area

A. Definition: The sum of all areas on all floors of a building used for custodial supplies, sink rooms, janitorial closets, and for public rest rooms. (NOTE: Building Service Area does not include assignable areas (e.g., areas classified as 730 – Central Storage and 870 – Central Supplies are not part of Building Service Area).

B. Basis for Measurement: Building Service Area is computed by physically measuring or scaling measurements from the inside faces of surfaces that form the boundaries of the designate areas. Exclude areas having less than six-foot, six-inch clear ceiling height unless the criteria of a separate structure are met.

C. Description: Included should be janitor closets or similarly small cleanup spaces, maintenance material storage areas, trash-rooms exclusively devoted to the storage of non-hazardous waste created by the building occupants as a whole and public toilets.

D. Limitations: Deductions should not be made for necessary building columns and projections. Areas central physical plant shop areas, or special purpose rooms, such as linen closets and housekeeping rooms in residence halls, should not be included. Does not include private toilets.

5. Circulation Area

A. Definition: The sum of all areas on all floors of a building required for physical access to some subdivision of space, whether physically bounded by partitions or not.

B. Basis for Measurement: Circulation area is computed by physically measuring or scaling measurements from the inside faces of surfaces that form the boundaries of the designated areas. Exclude areas having less than a six-foot, six-inch clear ceiling height unless the criteria of a separate structure are met.

C. Description: Included should be, but is not limited to, public corridors, fire towers, elevator lobbies, tunnels, bridges, and each floor's footprint of elevator shafts, escalators and stairways. Receiving areas, such as loading docks, should be treated as circulation space. Any part of a loading dock that is not covered is to be excluded from both circulation area and the gross building area. A loading dock, which is also used for central storage, should be regarded as assignable area and coded as central storage (730). Also included are corridors, whether walled or not, provided they are within the outside facelines of the buildings to the extent of the roof drop line.

D. Limitations: Deductions should not be made for necessary building columns and minor projections. When determining corridor areas, only spaces required for public access should be included. Restricted access private circulation aisles used only for circulation within an organizational unit's suite of rooms, auditoria, or other working areas should not be included.

6. Mechanical Area

A. Definition: The sum of all areas on all floors of a building designed to house mechanical equipment, utility services, and shaft areas.

B. Basis for Measurement: Mechanical area is computed by physically measuring or scaling measurements from the inside faces of surfaces that form the boundaries of the designated areas. Exclude areas having less than six-foot, six-inch clear ceiling height unless the criteria of a separate structure are met.

C. Description: Included should be mechanical areas such as central utility plants, boiler rooms, mechanical and electrical equipment rooms, fuel rooms, meter and communications closets, and each floor's footprint of air ducts, pipe shafts, mechanical service shafts, service chutes, and stacks.

D. Limitations: Deductions should not be made for necessary building columns and projections. Areas designated as private toilets are not included.

7. Net Usable Area

A. Definition: The sum of all areas on all floors of a building either assigned to, or available for assignment to, an occupant or specific use, or necessary for the general operation of a building.

B. Basis for Measurement: Net usable area is computed by summing the assignable area and the non-assignable area.

Measured in terms of net usable square feet (NUSF),
Net Usable Area = Assignable Area + Non-assignable Area.

C. Description: Included should be space subdivisions of the ten assignable major room use categories and the three non-assignable space categories.

D. Limitations: Deductions should not be made for necessary building columns and projections. Areas defined as structural should not be included.

8. Structural Area

A. Definition: The sum of all areas on all floors of a building that cannot be occupied or put to use because of structural building features.

B. Basis for Measurement: Precise computation by direct measurement is not possible under these definitions. It is determined by calculating the difference between the measured gross area and the measured net usable area.

Measured in terms of area, Structural Area = Gross Area - Net Usable Area.

C. Description: Examples of building features normally classified as structural areas include exterior walls, fire walls, permanent partitions, unusable areas in attics or basements, or comparable portions of a building with ceiling height restrictions, as well as unexcavated basement areas.

Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Building Space (Figure 1)

chart showing conceptual framework for analyzing building space

Present Use Codes: Definitions, Descriptions

000 - Building Services/Infrastructure
Areas of the institution that are not assignable to a specific area of control and are used to maintain service to the building. These areas are circulation spaces, (e.g., corridors, elevators, lobbies and stairways).

100 - Classroom Facilities
This category combines classroom facilities as a facility wide resource, even if these spaces fall under different levels of control throughout the organization. The term ‘classroom’ refers to general purpose classrooms as well as lecture halls, recitation rooms, seminar rooms and other rooms used for other scheduled non-laboratory instruction. Total classroom facilities refer to any support rooms that serve the ‘classroom’ activity. A classroom may contain various types of equipment (e.g., telecommunications, multimedia, etc.) as long as the type of equipment does not tie the room to a specific type of discipline or subject.

200 - Laboratory Facilities
A laboratory is a facility distinguished by special purpose equipment or a specific room configuration which links instructional or research activities to a specific discipline or a closely related group of disciplines. Laboratory facilities can be subdivided into three categories: class, open, and research laboratory. A class laboratory is used for scheduled instruction. An open laboratory is not scheduled but supports instruction. A research laboratory is used for research, experimentation, observation, research training or structured creative activity that supports the extension of a field of knowledge. Research laboratory is further subdivided into wet and dry. The distinction is the presence of running water within the laboratory for use in experiments. Research activities are categorized by effort codes and are represented by the percentage of a particular activity performed, (e.g., sponsored research, instruction, etc.).

300 - Office Facilities
Office facilities are space resources specifically assigned to each of the various academic, administrative and service functions. These consist of individual, multi-person or workstation spaces used to carry out desk-based activities and the support of these spaces.

400 - Study Facilities
Study space is divided into five categories: study room, study service, library, processing room, and open-stack study room. A study room may contain equipment or materials that aid the study or learning process but do not restrict the room to a specific academic discipline or area of study.

500 - Special Use Facilities
This category includes room use categories that are sufficiently specialized in their primary activity or function to warrant a unique room code. This classification includes areas for security, media production, demonstration, animal quarters, equipment rooms, and banking facilities.

600 - General Use Facilities
These areas are categorized by their broader availability for use by the general public, staff, students and faculty than are the spaces in the Special Use Facilities group. These areas include assembly, lounges, food facilities, merchandising, day care, and exhibitions.

700 - Support Facilities
Support facilities, which provide centralized space for various auxiliary support systems and services of a campus, help keep all institutional programs and activities operational. These areas are not directly accessible by the general public, staff, students or faculty but indirectly serve these areas with continuous support. These areas are centralized in that they generally serve the entire facility from a controlled location. Areas included are data processing, shops, central storage, laundry, mailroom, mechanical rooms, mechanical shafts, electrical rooms/closets and telecommunications room/closets.

800 - Healthcare Facilities
Facilities used to provide patient care, both human and animal. These would include patient bedrooms and baths, operating rooms (OR), treatment/examination rooms, nurse stations, diagnostic service laboratory and staff on-call rooms.

900 - Residential Facilities
Areas provided as housing facilities, either long or short term, to faculty, staff or visitors. These areas include sleep/study rooms.

Building Services/Infrastructure

010 Corridor: An area used as major circulation within a building.

011 Elevator: The area on each floor that represents the vertical shaft used for the elevator.

012 Elevator Lobby: The area directly adjacent to the doors of the elevators and bounded by major circulation spaces.

014 Lobby: The main entrance to a building and the area that serves the entrance for circulation purposes only.

017 Stairway: The area on each floor that represents the vertical shaft that is used by the stairs. Each floor is assigned the area that leads directly from the landing for that floor.

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Classroom Facilities

110 Classroom: A room used for classes that are not tied to a specific discipline or subject by equipment or room configuration. Includes rooms generally used for scheduled instruction that require no special, restrictive equipment or configuration. These rooms may be called lecture rooms, lecture-demonstration rooms, seminar rooms, and general purpose classrooms. A classroom may be equipped with tablet chairs, table and chairs, or similar types of seating. These rooms may contain special equipment for telecommunications and multimedia. The room cannot be furnished with equipment that renders the room unsuitable for use by classes from all areas of study.

115 Classroom Service: A room that directly serves one or more classrooms as en extension of the activities in the room. They must serve a classroom.

120 Study Room: A room or area used by individuals or groups to study at their convenience, which is not restricted to a particular subject or discipline by contained equipment.

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Laboratory Facilities

210 Student Laboratory: A room used primarily for formally or regularly scheduled classes that require special purpose equipment or a specific room configuration for student participation, experimentation, observation, or practice in an academic discipline. A class laboratory is designed for or furnished with equipment to serve the needs of a particular discipline for group instruction in formally or regularly scheduled classes. This special equipment normally limits or precludes the room's use by other disciplines.

215 Student Laboratory Service: A room that directly serves one or more class laboratories as an extension of the activities in those rooms.

250 Research Laboratory - Wet: A room used primarily for laboratory experimentation, research or training in research methods; or professional research and observation within a specific program. A research laboratory is designed or equipped for faculty, staff, and students for the conduct of research and controlled or structured creative activities. These activities are generally confined to faculty, staff and assigned graduate students and are applicable to any academic discipline. Contains facilities to provide running water for experiments.

255 Research Laboratory Service: A room that directly serves one or more research laboratories as an extension of the activities in those rooms. Includes only those rooms that directly serve a research laboratory.

260 Equipment Room: A room that serves as the storage/use room for specialized equipment.

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Office Facilities

310 Office: A room housing faculty, staff, or students working at one or more desks, tables, or workstations. An office is typically assigned to one or more persons as a station or work area. It may be equipped with desks, chairs, tables, bookcases, filing cabinets, computer workstations, or other office equipment. Included are faculty, administrative, clerical, graduate and teaching assistant, etc.

315 Office Service: A room that directly serves an office or group of offices as an extension of the activities in those rooms.

350 Conference Room: A room serving an office complex and used primarily for staff meetings and departmental activities. A conference room is typically equipped with tables and chairs. Normally a specific organizational unit or office area uses it.

355 Conference Room Service: A room that directly serves one or more conference rooms as an extension of the activities in those rooms.

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Study Facilities

410 Study: A room or area used by individuals to study at their convenience, which is restricted to a particular subject, person or discipline by assignment.

420 Library/Stack: A room used to house arranged collections of educational materials for use as a study resource.

430 Open-Stack Study Room: A combination study room and stack, generally without physical boundaries between the stack and study areas.

455 Study Service: A room that directly serves study rooms, stacks, open-stack study rooms, or processing rooms as a direct extension of the activities in those rooms.

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Special Use Facilities

530 Media Production: A room used for the production or distribution of multimedia materials or signals.

535 Media Production Service: A room that directly serves a media production or distribution room as an extension of the activities in that facility.

550 Demonstration: A room or group of rooms used to practice, within an instructional program, the principles of certain disciplines such as teaching, childcare or development, and home management or economics. The key criterion here is practice activity within an instructional program that closely simulates a real world or occupational setting.

555 Demonstration Service: A room that directly serves a demonstration facility as an extension of the activities in that facility.

570 Animal Quarters: A room that houses laboratory animals used for research or instructional purposes. Includes animal rooms, cage rooms, stalls, and wards. This code is exclusive to Animal Medicine Facilities.

575 Animal Quarters Service: A room that directly serves an animal quarters facility as an extension of the activities in that facility. Includes feed storage rooms, feed mixing rooms, cage-washing rooms, non-patient surgery rooms, casting rooms, or instrument rooms. This code exclusive to Animal Medicine Facility.

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General Use Facilities

610 Assembly: A room designed and equipped for the assembly of many persons for such events as dramatic, musical, devotional, or commencement activities. Includes theaters, auditoria, concert halls and arenas that are used primarily for general presentations (speakers), performances (dramatic, musical, dance). Seating areas, orchestra pits, chancels, arenas, aisles, and stages (if not used primarily for instruction) are included in and usually aggregated into the assembly space.

615 Assembly Service: A room or area that directly serves an assembly facility as an extension of the activities in that facility.

630 Food Facility: A room used for eating. Includes dining hall, cafeterias, snack bars, restaurants, and similar eating areas, including such areas in residence halls, faculty clubs, etc. This category includes facilities open to students, faculty, staff, or the public at large.

635 Food Facility Service: A room that directly serves a food facility as an extension of the activities in that facility.

640 Day Care: A room used to provide day or night, child or elderly adult care as a non-medical service to members of the institutional community.

645 Day Care Service: A room that directly serves a primary activity room in a day care facility as an extension of the activities in that room.

650 Lounge: A room used for rest and relaxation that is not restricted to a specific group of people, unit or area. A lounge facility is typically equipped with upholstered furniture, draperies, or carpeting, and may include vending machines.

655 Lounge Service: A room that directly serves a general use lounge facility.

660 Merchandising: A room used to sell products or services.

665 Merchandising Service: A room that directly serves a merchandising facility as an extension of the activities in that facility.

690 Locker Room: A room designated for changing of clothes that may also provide restrooms and showering facilities.

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Support Facilities

710 Data Processing/Computer Center: A room used as a computer-based data processing or telecommunications center with applications that are broad enough to serve the overall administrative or academic primary equipment needs of a central group of users, department, college, school, or entire institution. A Central Computer or Telecommunications room may be one of a group of rooms that constitute a center for delivering computer-based data processing or telecommunications services to various levels of user groups. Although the ongoing primary activity of this category is tied more closely to equipment than human activity, these areas require technical support staff, and physical access may be restricted to these personnel. These central equipment rooms appear most frequently at the campus-wide and large organizational unit levels and are generally subject to environmental and security controls and procedures limiting users to electronic terminals, telephone or modem access.

715 Data Processing/Computer Center Service: A room that directly serves a central computer or telecommunications facility as an extension of the activities in that facility.

720 Shop: A room used for the manufacture, repair, or maintenance of products or equipment. Includes carpenter, plumbing, HVAC, electrical and painting shops, and similar physical plant maintenance facilities. This category also includes centralized shops for construction or repair of research or instructional equipment, and repair and maintenance of multimedia equipment and devices.

725 Shop Service: A room that directly serves a shop facility as an extension of the activities in that facility.

730 Central Storage: A room or building that is used to store equipment or materials and that serve multiple room use categories, organizational units, or buildings. The concept of central or general is key to applying this code correctly. The vast majority of storage rooms on a campus are service rooms (e.g., 115, 215, 355, 615, etc.) that directly support a primary activity room or room group; for example, a paper storage room can serve several offices in an area. Service storage rooms are somewhat close to the areas they serve and are used more than occasionally. Central storage service rooms are typically limited to support rooms associated with the transporting of materials in and out of large central storage facilities and warehouses, storage rooms for hand trucks and other moving equipment, shelving storage, and other rooms supporting the central storage function.

735 Central Storage Service: A room that directly serves a central storage facility as an extension of the activities in that facility. Central storage service rooms are typically limited to support rooms associated with the transporting of materials in and out of large central storage facilities and warehouses. Storage rooms for hand trucks and other moving equipment, shelving storage, and other rooms supporting the central storage function are included.

740 Vehicle Storage: A room or structure that is used to house or store state vehicles. The definition of "vehicle" is broadly interpreted here to include forklifts, moving equipment, and other powered transport devices or equipment.

745 Vehicle Storage Service: A room that directly serves a vehicle storage facility as an extension of the activities in that facility.

750 Central Service: A room or area that is used for the processing, preparation, testing, or delivery of a complex-central or campus-wide support service. The central service delivery may be provided by special equipment, human activity, the special availability of space, or any combination of these elements.

755 Central Service Support: A room that directly serves a central service facility as an extension of the activities in that facility.

760 Hazardous Materials: A centralized facility used for the storage, treatment, or disposal of hazardous or toxic waste materials. Hazardous or toxic materials include any materials that have been designated for specific or formal regulation or controls on the basis of a potential harm to plant or animal life.

765 Hazardous Materials Service: A facility that serves a centralized facility used for the storage, treatment, or disposal of hazardous or toxic waste materials.

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Healthcare Facilities

810 Patient Bedroom: A room equipped with a bed and used for patient care.

815 Patient Bedroom Service: A room that directly serves one or more patient bedrooms as an extension of the activities in those rooms.

820 Patient Bath: A room containing patient bath and toilet facilities. Included in this category are toilet and bath facilities adjoining or in conjunction with patient bedrooms.

830 Nurse Station: A room or area used by nurses or other patient care staff that are supervising or administering health care services. This is the primary workstation area used by nurses and other patient care staff.

835 Nurse Station Service: A room that directly serves one or more nurse station rooms as an extension of the activities in those rooms.

840 Surgery: Operating rooms.

845 Surgery Service: A room that directly serves one or more operating room as an extension of the activities in those rooms.

850 Treatment/Examination: A room used for diagnostic and therapeutic treatment.

855 Treatment/Examination Service: A room that directly serves a treatment/examination room as an extension of the activities in that facility.

860 Diagnostic Service Laboratory: A room used to provide diagnostic support services to an entire health care facility.

865 Diagnostic Service Laboratory Support Service: A room that directly serves a diagnostic service laboratory as an extension of the activities in that facility.

870 Central Supplies: A room used centrally to store health care supplies in a health care facility.

880 Public Waiting: A room used by the public to await admission, treatment or information within a health care facility.

890 Staff On-call Facility: A room or quarters used by health care staff to rest or sleep while on-call to assigned duties within a health care facility.

895 Staff On-call Facility Service: A room that directly serves a staff on-call room as an extension of the activities in that facility.

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1 Source: Federal Construction Council Technical Report No. 50 (Publication 1235), Classification of Building Areas, National Academy of Sciences, Building Research Advisory Board.

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